[7], Attitude polarization, also known as belief polarization and polarization effect, is a phenomenon in which a disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider evidence on the issue. To study polarization in a population faced with rising inequality or a declining economy, we apply methods from cultural evolution and evolutionary game theory (24–27).This approach rests on the idea that each member of a large population uses a strategy p, which is the probability that they choose an interaction with an in-group member versus one with an out-group member. The group polarization literature is an encouraging example of how theoretically and practically meaningful phenomena in social psychology can be defined and explored through empirical research: In particular, this study found that group discussions, conducted when discussants are in a distributed (cannot see one another) or anonymous (cannot identify one another) environment, can lead to even higher levels of group polarization compared to traditional meetings. The researchers again asked people about the strength of their beliefs about the deterrence effect of the death penalty, and, this time, also asked them about the effect that the research had had on their attitudes. A study by Myers in 2005 reported that initial differences among American college students become more accentuated over time. Why Group Polarization Happens. This suggests that a general phenomenon of choice-shifts exists apart from only risk-related decisions. [25] Studies regarding the theory have demonstrated that normative influence is more likely with judgmental issues, a group goal of harmony, person-oriented group members, and public responses. In their experiment, participants gave pre-test, post-test, and group consensus recommendations on three choice dilemma item-types (risky, neutral, or cautious). This research was pioneered by James A. F. Stoner (1961), who first found the tendency in groups who were considering risk-taking behaviors; the phenomenon was thus initially labeled "risky shift." Consider the following example: "Mr. A, an electrical engineer, who is married and has one child, has been working for a large electronics corporation since graduating from college five years ago. Individuals completed the questionnaire and made their decisions independently of others. The participants' degree of commitment to their original positions were re-measured, and the participants were asked about the quality of the research and the effect the research had on their beliefs. [1] The phenomenon also holds that a group's attitude toward a situation may change in the sense that the individuals' initial attitudes have strengthened and intensified after group discussion, a phenomenon known as attitude polarization. [6], Research has suggested that well-established groups suffer less from polarization, as do groups discussing problems that are well known to them. [10] For most issues, new evidence does not produce a polarization effect. He observed a phenomenon known as “risky shift”, which appeared to show that when placed in a group setting, individuals were prepared to take riskier decisions than those they might have taken as … These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individuals' initial tendencies are to be risky and towards greater caution if individuals' initial tendencies are to be cautious. This research supports the deterrent effect of the death penalty. [4], Informational influence, or persuasive arguments theory, has also been used to explain group polarization, and is most recognized by psychologists today. This measure required participants to consider a hypothetical scenario in which an individual is faced with a dilemma and must make a choice to resolve the issue at hand. The persuasive arguments interpretation holds that individuals become more convinced of their views when they hear novel arguments in support of their position. [18] These results should be understood in the context of several problems in the implementation of the study, including the fact the researchers changed the scaling of the outcome of the variable, so measuring attitude change was impossible, and measured polarization using a subjective assessment of attitude change and not a direct measure of how much change had occurred. ", Participants were then asked to imagine that they were advising Mr. A. Group polarization results in the form of conformity, which could push you further into a corner then you ever intended to be. ____The chances are 1 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. [20] The study found that situations that normally favor the more risky alternative increased risky shifts. Some of these items or arguments are shared among the members while some items are unshared, in which all but one member has considered these arguments before. Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. There is a substantial amount of empirical evidence demonstrating the phenomenon of group polarization. Later, they would be asked to join a group to reassess their choices. [19], Group polarization and choice shifts are similar in many ways; however, they differ in one distinct way. A split into opposing factions that fail to reach an agreement b. [33], One study analyzed over 30,000 tweets on Twitter regarding the shooting of George Tiller, a late term abortion doctor, where the tweets analyzed were conversations among pro-life and pro-choice advocates post shooting. Entries are average differences in opinion polarization between treatment and control groups, … U.S. political polarization presents biggest ‘risk’ to the world in 2021: Eurasia Group Published: Jan. 4, 2021 at 11:06 a.m. Start studying Chapter 8: Group Influence/Group Polarization. Group polarization is the usual pattern with deliberating groups, having been found in hundreds of studies involving more than a dozen countries, including the United States, France, and Germany. The new job would pay more to start and would offer the possibility of a share in the owner- ship if the company survived the competition of the larger firms. The presence of a member with an extreme viewpoint or attitude does not further polarize the group. This is attributed to the greater numbers of novel arguments generated (due to persuasive arguments theory) and higher incidence of one-upmanship behaviors (due to social comparison). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Group polarization focuses on how groups usually make decisions that are more extreme than the original thoughts and views of the individual team members. However, in situations where groups are somewhat newly formed and tasks are new, group polarization can demonstrate a more profound influence on the decision-making. A comparison of individual and group decisions involving risk. For example, a group of women who hold moderately feminist views tend to demonstrate heightened pro-feminist beliefs following group discussion. In order to gain acceptance, people then take a position that is similar to everyone else's but slightly more extreme. These explanations were gradually narrowed down and grouped together until two primary mechanisms remained, social comparison and informational influence. Learn group polarization with free interactive flashcards. [2], Group polarization is an important phenomenon in social psychology and is observable in many social contexts. [32] Owing to this technology, it is possible for individuals to curate their sources of information and the opinions to which they are exposed, thereby reinforcing and strengthening their own views while effectively avoiding information and perspectives with which they disagree. Developmental Psychology, 41, 625-635. These theories for group polarization can be broken down further into two main categories: normative influence and informative influence. [39] While polarization can occur in any type of conflict, it has its most damaging effects in large-scale inter-group, public policy, and international conflicts. Furthermore, the experiment took place over a two-week period, leading the researchers to suggest that group polarization may occur only in the short-term. Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. The phenomenon also holds that a group's attitudetoward a situation may change in the sense that the individuals' initial attitudes have strengthened and intensified after group discussion, … ____The chances are 3 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. Log in. In 1979, Charles Lord, Lee Ross and Mark Lepper[9] performed a study in which they selected two groups of people, one group strongly in favor of capital punishment, the other strongly opposed. According to the social comparison interpretation, group polarization occurs as a result of individuals' desire to gain acceptance and be perceived in a favorable way by their group. Group discussion shifts the weight of evidence as each group member expresses their arguments, shedding light onto a number of different positions and ideas. Why groups go to extremes", "Polarization and Conflict: Theoretical and Empirical Issues", Mass murder of German POWs after World War II (1940s), Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden, Free energy suppression conspiracy theory, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Group_polarization&oldid=997380619, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 06:21. PsycholoGenie will help you understand the various nuances of … leadership style and time constraints Group polarization results in: the tendency for group members who were initially more cautious to become significantly less. Stoner, J. Industrial Management Review, 3, 8-23. Group polarization theories explore the tendency of people in groups to shift their opinions toward the extreme pole of popular opinion. In‐group polarization does not affect gender attitudes, however. Rather, the amount of information and persuasiveness of the arguments mediate the level of polarization experienced. Researchers have identified an increase in affective polarization among the United States electorate, and report that hostility and discrimination towards the opposing political party has increased dramatically over time. [27], In the 1970s, significant arguments occurred over whether persuasive argumentation alone accounted for group polarization. According to Moscovici et al. point out that it is reasonable for people to be less critical of research that supports their current position, but it seems less rational for people to significantly increase the strength of their attitudes when they read supporting evidence. The study of group polarization can be traced back to an unpublished 1961 Master's thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift". That leads you to think again when you get home or somewhere else and wonder where those opinions even came from. Participants were then asked to estimate the probability that a certain choice would be of benefit or risk to the individual being discussed. Matched-filter coding of sky polarization results in an internal sun compass in the brain of the desert locust. On a smaller scale, group polarization can also be seen in the everyday lives of students in higher education. [29] The results of the study supported their hypothesis in that participants converged on a norm polarized toward risk on risky items and toward caution on cautious items. [16] Whichever position they held initially, people tended to hold that position more strongly after reading research that supported it. [38] Researchers have suggested, for instance, that ethnic conflict exacerbates group polarization by enhancing identification with the ingroup and hostility towards the outgroup. In the next stage of the research, the participants were given more information about the study described on the card they received, including details of the research, critiques of the research, and the researchers' responses to those critiques. Group polarization Group identification r=.40, p<.0001 H1 supported Group identification Individuating information a F= 17.04, p<.0001 H2a supported b Group polarization Individuating information F= 7.30, p<.01 H2b supported c Perceived argument quality Group identification r=.32, p<.0001 H3 supported Group polarization The result of jury deliberation is to produce an increase in extremism, in the form of higher awards. We create a nanowire polarizer with a series of rectangles of Perfect Electrical Conductor (PEC). The researchers found that people tended to believe that research that supported their original views had been better conducted and was more convincing than research that didn't. In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. [23], The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the 1920s and 1930s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups, leading to the expectation that groups would make decisions that would conform to the average risk level of its members. Group polarization is the phenomenon that when placed in group situations, people will make decisions and form opinions to more of an extreme than when they are in individual situations. [22] The concept of risky shift maintains that a group's decisions are riskier than the average of the individual decisions of members before the group met. It helps account for many terrible things, including terrorism, stoning, and “mobbing” in … Byrnes, J. P., Miller, D. C., & Schafer, W. D. (1999). Overall, the results suggest that not only may group polarization not be as prevalent as previous studies suggest, but group theories, in general, may not be simply transferable when seen in a computer-related discussion. ____The chances are 5 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. [35] The study's results also showed that groupthink occurs less in computer-mediated discussions than when people are face to face. For example: Kroner and Phillips (1977) compared murder rates for the year before and the year after adoption of capital punishment in 14 states. In other words, the extremist will have no impact without interaction. The findings suggest that group size has a significant effect on group polarization. Finally, 1992 value polarization significantly predicts two of three operationalizations of 1996 affective polarization: party and ideological group affect. [21] This finding demonstrates how one opinion in the group will not sway the group; it is the combination of all the individual opinions that will make an impact. [30] This further lends support to the self-categorization explanation of group polarization. These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individuals' initial tendencies are to be risky and towards greater caution if individuals' initial tendencies are to be cautious. Though group polarization deals mainly with risk-involving decisions and/or opinions, discussion-induced shifts have been shown to occur on several non-risk-involving levels. [3] Similarly, studies have shown that after deliberating together, mock jury members often decided on punitive damage awards that were either larger or smaller than the amount any individual juror had favored prior to deliberation. In 8 of the 10 pairs, murder rates were higher in the state with capital punishment. asked Apr 6, 2017 in Psychology by Whelma. ET On the other hand, it is very unlikely that his salary will increase much before he retires. Group polarization has been widely considered as a fundamental group decision-making process and was well established, but remained non-obvious and puzzling because its mechanisms were not fully understood. [6], In a study conducted by Sia et al. have on group polarization, which is measured by forum participants’ sentiments. According to the idea of group polarization, if an individual holds an opinion about a topic, that opinion will likely be enhanced after a discussion on the topic with a group. RESULTS. A study conducted by Taylor & MacDonald (2002) featured a realistic setting of a computer-mediated discussion, but group polarization did not occur at the level expected. Researchers theorize that this is at least partially explained by group polarization, as group members tend to reinforce one another's proclivities and opinions. [clarification needed] Stoner (1968) found that a decision is impacted by the values behind that circumstances of the decision. As polarization gets underway, the group members become more reluctant to bring up items of information they have about the subject that might contradict the emerging group consensus. The effects of repeated expressions on attitude polarization during group discussions. Results support the conflict‐group polarization model and indicate that out‐group polarization has the most powerful effect on both gendered family role attitudes and policy attitudes for men and women. Rarely these days does a news cycle pass without new stories of political dysfunction in Washington, D.C. Reports of stalemates, fiscal cliffs, and failed grand bargains have begun to erode the public confidence in the ability of our representative institutions to govern effectively. [29] Another similar study found that in-group prototypes become more polarized as the group becomes more extreme in the social context. "Found in many settings, it involves like-minded people going to extremes. The process of characterizing a social polarization index using extensions of the axioms presented in DER to the multi-group case is not straight-forward. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1014-1029. This research opposes the deterrent effect of the death penalty.[15]. In surveys carried in 2014, Pew researchers found that 36 percent of Republicans and 27 percent of Democrats responded that the opposing … (1972) interaction within a group and differences of opinion are necessary for group polarization to take place. A. F. (1961). Social psychologists highlight that group polarization is a direct result of conformity. (2002), group polarization was found to occur with online (computer-mediated) discussions. In other words, individuals base their individual choices by weighing remembered pro and con arguments. The concept of group polarization states that a person tends to shift to a more extreme opinion when in a group setting than what his/her original opinion might have been. The researchers hypothesized that an ingroup confronted by a risky outgroup will polarize toward caution, an ingroup confronted by a caution outgroup will polarize toward risk, and an ingroup in the middle of the social frame of reference, confronted by both risky and cautious outgroups, will not polarize but will converge on its pre-test mean. The theory holds that people first compare their own ideas with those held by the rest of the group; they observe and evaluate what the group values and prefers. It is always a good idea to start an investigation with a very simple test case. Polarization has been defined as both a process and a state of being. There is a lesson here about punishment judgments in general. Choose from 292 different sets of group polarization flashcards on Quizlet. Isenberg concluded that there was substantial evidence that both effects were operating simultaneously, and that persuasive arguments theory operated when social comparison did not, and vice versa. Daniel Isenberg's 1986 meta-analysis of the data gathered by both the persuasive argument and social comparison camps succeeded, in large part, in answering the questions about predominant mechanisms. People want to be seen as unique, so they start throwing out extreme ideas that get them a … Later, both the pro- and anti-capital punishment people were put into small groups and shown one of two cards, each containing a statement about the results of a research project written on it. Since the late 1960s, psychologists have carried out a number of studies on various aspects of attitude polarization. In 11 of the 14 states, murder rates were lower after adoption of the death penalty. Also, Moscovici et al. The study of group polarization began with an unpublished 1961 Master’s thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift", meaning that a group’s decisions are riskier than the average of the individual decisions of members before the group met. [11] For those issues where polarization is found, mere thinking about the issue, without contemplating new evidence, produces the effect. The study found that like-minded individuals strengthened group identity whereas replies between different-minded individuals reinforced a split in affiliation. a. These findings also show the importance of previous group shifts. The Concept of Group Polarization in Psychology Explained. ____The chances are 9 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. Normative Influence. [36], Group polarization is similarly influential in legal contexts. Referent informational influence theory explains group polarization as conformity, through self‐categorization, to a local in‐group norm which is polarized as a result of the in‐group being located towards an extreme of the salient comparative context or social frame of reference. Since human beings are social creatures the allure to be accepted and belonged to a group is very strong which can result in group polarization. Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. A decision that is the opposite of what most group members originally favored c. [4] Furthermore, research suggests that it is not simply the sharing of information that predicts group polarization. [8] When people encounter ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them interpreting it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather than narrowing the disagreement between them. Psychologists have found that social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter demonstrate that group polarization can occur even when a group is not physically together. discussion leads a group to adopt attitudes or actions that are more extreme than the initial attitudes or actions of the individual group members found individual preferences to be irrelevant; it is differences of opinion which will cause the shift. [20] The seemingly counter-intuitive findings of Stoner led to a spurt of research around the risky shift, which was originally thought to be a special case exception to the standard decision-making practice. When "group polarization" occurs, what is the result? [11] Social comparison processes have also been invoked as an explanation for the effect, which is increased by settings in which people repeat and validate each other's statements. Assuming most or all group members lean in the same direction, during discussion, items of unshared information supporting that direction are expressed, which provides members previously unaware of them more reason to lean in that direction. [35], Group polarization has been widely discussed in terms of political behavior (see political polarization). Definition. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias: the tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively, to reinforce their current beliefs or attitudes. Gardner, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). Many people had concluded that people in a group setting would make decisions based on what they assumed to be the overall risk level of a group; because Stoner's work did not necessarily address this specific theme, and because it does seem to contrast Stoner's initial definition of risky shift, additional controversy arose leading researchers to further examine the topic. [28] Accordingly, proponents of the self-categorization model hold that group polarization occurs because individuals identify with a particular group and conform to a prototypical group position that is more extreme than the group mean. ____The chances are 7 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. By the late 1960s, however, it had become clear that the risky shift was just one type of many attitudes that became more extreme in groups, leading Moscovici and Zavalloni to term the overall phenomenon "group polarization."[24]. [17] When people had read both the research that supported their views and the research that did not, they tended to hold their original attitudes more strongly than before they received that information. These wires reflect S polarization, but allow P polarization to pass through. Thus, on decisions in which group members have, on the average, a moderate proclivity in a given direction, group discussion results in a more extreme average proclivity in the same direction. Recently, some theorists have argued that group polarization may be partly responsible for the extreme political partisanship that seems ubiquitous in modern society. Juries display group polarization as well. Group polarization refers to attitude change on the individual level due to the influence of the group, and choice shift refers to the outcome of that attitude change; namely, the difference between the average group members' pre-group discussion attitudes and the outcome of the group decision.[7]. . Before studying the nanowire polarizer, we will check our ana… Indicated by shifts in the mean value, initial studies using this method revealed that group decisions tended to be relatively riskier than those that were made by individuals. Normative Influence states that people will alter their opinions in a group setting in order to fit in or be looked upon more favorably by their peers. Finally, the trial was rerun on all participants using a card that supported the opposite position to that they had initially seen. In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. ____Place a check here if you think Mr. A should not take the new job no matter what the probabilities. [12] This apparent tendency is of interest not only to psychologists, but also to sociologists,[13] and philosophers.[14]. The phenomenon has shown that after participating in a discussion group, members tend to advocate more extreme positions and call for riskier courses of action than individuals who did not participate in any such discussion. Cited in Marquis, D. G. (1962). In contrast to social comparison theory and persuasive argumentation theory, the self-categorization model maintains that inter-group categorization processes are the cause of group polarization [29]. [15], Palmer and Crandall (1977) compared murder rates in 10 pairs of neighboring states with different capital punishment laws. More so, situations that normally favor the cautious alternative increased cautious shifts. [40], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Dynamic Debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter", "Disagreement, Dogmatism, and Belief Polarization", "Risky and cautious shifts in group decisions: the influence of widely held values", "Knowing what to think by knowing who you are: Self-categorization and the nature of norm formation, conformity and group polarization", "Deliberative Trouble? Group polarization is a phenomenon studied in the social sciences in which the decisions and opinions of individuals become more extreme when they are in group settings. The result is a biased discussion in which the group has no opportunity to consider all the facts, because the members are not bringing them up. [21] While an extremist in the group may sway opinion, the shift can only occur with sufficient and proper interaction within the group. [4] The studies indicated that when the jurors favored a relatively low award, discussion would lead to an even more lenient result, while if the jury was inclined to impose a stiff penalty, discussion would make it even harsher. Democrats that view Republicans unfavorably has increased from 59 percent to 86 percent over the same time period. Very simply, group polarization happens because you take the most extreme part of a bunch of people, add that all up, and get something more extreme. With different capital punishment points of view or philosophies measuring group polarization in... The Questionnaire and made their decisions independently of others distribution around conflicting of., Miller, D. G. ( 1962 ) thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,.!, J. P., Miller, D. G. ( 1962 ) the cautious alternative cautious... A series of rectangles of Perfect Electrical Conductor ( PEC ) risky shifts, in... Theorists have argued that group size has a significant effect on group,! & Steinberg, L. ( 2005 ) to explain group polarization becomes more extreme in the form of.... Predicts group polarization is similarly influential in legal contexts new job no matter what probabilities! Jury deliberation is to produce an increase in extremism, in a study Myers! The median member, before deliberation been defined as both a process a! Could push you further into a corner then you ever intended to be far higher than the award! Attitude does not affect gender attitudes, however, predict polarized affective reactions to the multi-group case is not.. M., & Gliner, M., Judd, C. M., Judd, M.... Group decisions involving risk D. C., & Steinberg, L. ( 2005 ) though adequate, and! Convention, Mr. a is offered a job with a modest, though adequate salary..., they would then be provided with a series of probabilities that indicate whether the new job matter... [ 27 ], the amount of information that predicts group polarization group! View or philosophies are similar in many social contexts reflect S polarization, theories! Company which has a highly uncertain future within a group of women who hold moderately views. In extremism, in the state with capital punishment laws Choice-Dilemmas Questionnaire partially for violent and..., M., Judd, C. M. group polarization results in & Schafer, W. D. 1995., has been widely discussed in terms of political behavior ( see political )! 1999 ) Personality and social Psychology, 68, 1014-1029 that circumstances of the arguments mediate the level polarization... Will have no impact without interaction brauer, M., & Gliner, M. Judd..., while these two theories are the most widely accepted as explanations for polarization... So, individuals support the group 's beliefs while still presenting themselves as admirable ``... Polarized as the Choice-Dilemmas Questionnaire has a significant effect on group polarization is bimodal. Measured using a card that supported the opposite of what most group members originally C.. Push you further into a corner then you ever intended to be irrelevant ; it not... Sets of group polarization is an important phenomenon in social Psychology and is observable in many social contexts …... Social psychologists highlight that group polarization can also be seen in the 1970s, significant occurred... 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That his salary will increase much before he retires ( 1968 ) found that in-group become., however, some theorists have argued that group polarization, though not its only,... 6 ], in a study by Myers in 2005 reported that initial differences among American students. Indicate whether the new company that offered him a position that is the opposite position to that they advising! A member with an extreme viewpoint or attitude does not produce a polarization effect thoughts and views of median... Of benefit or risk to the major party presidential candidates in 1996 views when they hear novel in! Also be seen in the state with capital punishment laws in social Psychology,,. Alternative theories have been proposed explanation of group polarization 86 percent over the same time period their decisions of... Different sets of group polarization was found to occur on several non-risk-involving levels the probabilities less in computer-mediated discussions when. Palmer and Crandall ( 1977 ) compared murder rates were higher in group polarization results in. Be partly responsible for the extreme political partisanship that seems ubiquitous in society! With issues that activate emotions, such as political 'hot-button ' issues focuses on how usually... Der to the multi-group case is not straight-forward polarization and choice shifts are similar in many ways however... Lends support to the multi-group case is not simply the sharing of information that predicts group polarization deals mainly risk-involving... Other words, the extremist will have no impact without interaction: experimental. How groups usually make decisions that are more extreme in the social.. The new job no matter what the probabilities values behind that circumstances of the states. Been reported to occur during wartime and other times of conflict and helps account! Their punitive-damage awards tend to demonstrate heightened pro-feminist beliefs following group discussion 1996 affective:. The same time period phenomenon was measured using a card that supported opposite. Of others favored C. Definition for many terrible things, including terrorism stoning... Will cause the shift irrelevant ; it is very unlikely that his salary will increase much he. That normally favor the cautious alternative increased risky shifts effect of the referent informational influence admirable group `` ''... Strength with which people held their position field experiments show the importance of previous group shifts candidates. The values behind that circumstances of the axioms presented in DER to the multi-group case is not straight-forward had seen. Of group polarization is reported a modest, though not its only facet, is a direct result of deliberation. Show the importance of previous group shifts here about punishment judgments in general defined both! In DER to the individual team members in 11 of the death penalty. [ 15 ] times. Of previous group shifts Electrical Conductor ( PEC ) shifts are mainly Explained by largely differing values..., Palmer and Crandall ( 1977 ) compared murder rates were lower after adoption of the 14 states, rates! That the company will prove financially sound liberal pension benefits upon retirement member with an extreme viewpoint attitude. Simply the sharing of information and persuasiveness of the death penalty. [ 15 ], while these two are! And ideological group affect rates in 10 that the company will prove financially sound that groupthink occurs less in discussions. The arguments mediate the level of polarization experienced in‐group polarization does not produce a effect... When `` group polarization may be partly responsible for the extreme political partisanship that seems ubiquitous in modern society produce. That they had initially seen pro-feminist beliefs following group discussion explanation of group has! A direct result of jury deliberation is to produce an increase in extremism, in the form of,. Of Technology, Cambridge similarly influential in legal contexts observed with issues that activate emotions, such as political '... Show the importance of previous group shifts aspect of polarization, which is measured by forum participants ’ sentiments split... Be asked to estimate the probability that a certain choice would be asked to estimate the probability that a choice. Needed ] Stoner ( 1968 ) found that like-minded individuals strengthened group whereas! Then take a position that is the result of jury deliberation is to produce an increase in extremism, the. Showed that groupthink occurs less in computer-mediated discussions than when people are face to....